Coronavirus

On this website you can find information and guidance from WHO regarding the current outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that was first reported from Wuhan, China, on 31 December 2019. Please visit this page for daily updates.

WHO is working closely with global experts, governments and partners to rapidly expand scientific knowledge on this new virus, to track the spread and virulence of the virus, and to provide advice to countries and individuals on measures to protect health and prevent the spread of this outbreak.

Basic protective measures against the new coronavirus

Wash your hands frequently
Wash your hands frequently with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand rub if your hands aren’t visibly dirty.

Why? Washing your hands with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub eliminates the virus if it’s on your hands.

Practice respiratory hygiene
When coughing and sneezing, cover mouth and nose with flexed elbow or tissue – discard tissue immediately into a closed bin and clean your hands with alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.

Why? Covering your mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing prevent the spread of germs and viruses. If you sneeze or cough into your hands, you’ll contaminate objects or folks that you touch.

Maintain social distancing
Maintain a minimum of 1 metre (3 feet) distance between yourself and people , particularly those that are coughing, sneezing and have a fever.

Why? When someone who is infected with a respiratory illness , like 2019-nCoV, coughs or sneezes they project small droplets containing the virus. If you’re too close, you’ll inhale the virus.
Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth
Why? Hands touch many surfaces which may be contaminated with the virus. If you touch your eyes, nose or mouth together with your contaminated hands, you’ll transfer the virus from the surface to yourself.

If you’ve got fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek medical aid early
Tell your health care provider if you’ve got traveled in a neighborhood in China where 2019-nCoV has been reported, or if you’ve got been in close contact with someone with who has traveled from China and has respiratory symptoms.

Why? Whenever you’ve got fever, cough and difficulty breathing it’s important to hunt medical attention promptly as this might flow from to a respiratory tract infection or other serious condition. Respiratory symptoms with fever can have a variety of causes, and counting on your personal travel history and circumstances, 2019-nCoV might be one among them.

If you’ve got mild respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China
If you’ve got mild respiratory symptoms and no travel history to or within China, carefully practice basic respiratory and hand hygiene and stay home until you’re recovered, if possible.

As a general precaution, practice general hygiene measures when visiting live animal markets, wet markets or animal material markets
Ensure regular hand washing with soap and potable water after touching animals and animal products; avoid touching eyes, nose or mouth with hands; and avoid contact with sick animals or spoiled animal products. Strictly avoid any contact with other animals within the market (e.g., stray cats and dogs, rodents, birds, bats). Avoid contact with potentially contaminated animal waste or fluids on the soil or structures of outlets and market facilities.

Avoid consumption of raw or undercooked animal products
Handle meat , milk or animal organs with care, to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods, as per good food safety practices.
Protect yourself et al. from getting sick

Travel advice

This is an update to the WHO advice in reference to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus nCoV, published by WHO on 10 January 2020. For details about the present outbreak in China and therefore the exported cases, please ask the Diseases Outbreak News and therefore the situation reports published by WHO.

So far, the most clinical signs and symptoms reported during this outbreak include fever, difficulty in breathing, and chest radiographs showing bilateral lung infiltrates. As of 27 January 2020, human-to-human transmission has been confirmed largely in Wuhan city, but also another places in China and internationally. Not enough is understood about the epidemiology of 2019-nCoV to draw definitive conclusions about the complete clinical features of disease, the intensity of the human-to-human transmission, and therefore the original source of the outbreak.

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International travellers: practice usual precautions
Coronaviruses are an outsized family of respiratory viruses which will cause diseases starting from the cold to the Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and therefore the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). just in case of symptoms implicational acute respiratory disease before, during or after travel, the travellers are encouraged to hunt medical attention and share travel history with their health care provider.

Public health authorities should provide to travellers information to scale back the overall risk of acute respiratory infections, via health practitioners, travel health clinics, travel agencies, conveyance operators and at Points of Entry. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) advice for the overall public published on the WHO website contains WHO standard recommendations for the general public to scale back exposure to and transmission of a variety of illnesses, to guard yourself et al. from getting sick, to remain healthy while travelling.

WHO technical guidance on surveillance and case definitions, laboratory guidance, clinical management for suspected novel coronavirus, home look after patients with suspected novel coronavirus, infection prevention and control, risk communications, disease commodity package, and reducing transmission from animals to humans is out there on the WHO website.

Health measures associated with international traffic
The current outbreak originated in Wuhan city, which may be a major domestic and international transport hub. Given the massive population movements, and therefore the observed human to human transmission, it’s not unexpected that new confirmed cases will still appear in other areas and countries. With the knowledge currently available for the novel coronavirus, WHO advises that measures to limit the danger of exportation or importation of the disease should be implemented, without unnecessary restrictions of international traffic.

Advice for exit screening in countries or areas with ongoing transmission of the novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV (currently People’s Republic of China)
Conduct exit screening at international airports and ports within the affected areas, with the aims early detection of symptomatic travellers for further evaluation and treatment, and thus prevent exportation of the disease. while minimizing interference with international traffic;
Exit screening includes checking for signs and symptoms (fever above 38°, cough), interview of passengers with respiratory tract infection symptoms leaving the affected areas with regards to potential exposure to high-risk contacts or to the presumed animal source, directing symptomatic travellers to further checkup , followed by testing for 2019-nCoV, and keeping confirmed cases under isolation and treatment;
Encourage screening at domestic airports, railway stations, and long-distance bus stations as necessary;
Travellers who had contact with confirmed cases or direct exposure to potential source of infection should be placed under medical observation. High-risk contacts should avoid travel for the duration of the time period (up to 14 days);
Implement health information campaigns at Points of Entry to boost awareness of reducing the overall risk of acute respiratory infections and therefore the measures required, should a traveller develop signs and symptoms implicational infection with the 2019-nCoV and the way they will obtain assistance.
Advice for entry screening in countries/areas without transmission of the novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV that prefer to perform entry screening
The evidence from the past outbreaks shows that effectiveness of entry screening is uncertain, but it’s going to support risk communication strategy by providing information to travellers from affected countries/areas to scale back the overall risk of acute respiratory infections, and to hunt medical attention early if they develop symptoms compatible with the infection.
During the present outbreak with the novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV, variety of exported cases were detected through entry screening implemented by some countries. Symptomatic cases could also be detected through temperature screening at Point of Entry, for whom checkup and laboratory tests are going to be conducted for confirmation. Temperature screening to detect potential suspect cases at );Point of Entry may miss travellers incubating the disease or travellers concealing fever during travel and should require substantial investments. A focused approach targeting direct flights from affected areas might be simpler and fewer resource demanding.
Currently the hemisphere (and China) is within the midst of the winter season when Influenza and other respiratory infections are prevalent. When deciding implementation of entry screening, countries got to take into consideration that travellers with signs and symptoms implicational respiratory tract infection may result from respiratory diseases aside from 2019-nCoV,; which their follow-up may impose a further burden on the health system. National policy and capacities should be taken under consideration during the decision-making process.
If entry screening is implemented, temperature screening should be amid dissemination of risk communication messages at Points of Entry. this will be done through posters, leaflets, electronic bulletin, etc, aiming at raising awareness among travellers about signs and symptoms of the disease, and encouragement of health care seeking behavior, including when to hunt medical aid , and report of their travel history.
Countries implementing temperature screening are encouraged to determine proper mechanism for data collection and analysis, e.g. numbers of travellers screened and confirmed cases out of screened passengers, and method of screening.
Public health authorities should reinforce collaboration with airline operators for case management on board an aircraft and reporting, should a traveller with respiratory illness symptoms is detected, in accordance with the IATA guidance for cabin crew to manage suspected disease on board an aircraft.
Previous advice with regards to procedures for a ill traveller detected on board a plane and requirements for IHR capacities at Points of Entry remains unchanged (see WHO Advice published on 10 January 2020).

WHO advises against the appliance of any restrictions of international traffic supported the knowledge currently available on this event.

About it

Coronaviruses are a gaggle of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, the viruses cause respiratory infections – including the cold – which are typically mild. Rarer forms like SARS, MERS and therefore the novel coronavirus causing the 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak are often lethal. In cows and pigs coronaviruses cause diarrhea. In chickens they cause an upper respiratory illness . There are not any vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses within the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae within the family Coronaviridae, within the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the most important for an RNA virus.

The name “coronavirus” springs from the Latin corona, meaning crown or halo, which refers to the characteristic appearance of the virus particles (virions): they need a fringe like a royal crown or of the solar corona.

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Contents
1 Discovery
2 Name and morphology
3 Replication
4 Transmission
5 Taxonomy
6 Evolution
7 Human coronaviruses
7.1 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
7.2 Middle East respiratory syndrome
7.3 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
8 Other animals
8.1 Diseases caused
8.2 In livestock
9 See also
10 References
11 Further reading
12 External links
Discovery
Coronaviruses were discovered within the 1960s.[6] ;The earliest ones discovered were infectious bronchitis virus in chickens and two viruses from the nasal cavities of human patients with the cold that were subsequently named human coronavirus 229E and human coronavirus OC43.[7] Other members of this family have since been identified, including SARS-CoV in 2003, HCoV NL63 in 2004, HKU1 in 2005, MERS-CoV in 2012, and 2019-nCoV in 2019; most of those are involved in serious tract infections.

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Name and morphology
The name “coronavirus” springs from the Latin corona and therefore the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, “garland, wreath”), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective sort of the virus) by microscopy , which have a fringe of huge , bulbous surface projections creating a picture like a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is made by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the general structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). within the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), an outlined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[8] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) even have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]

Replication

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The infection cycle of coronavirus
After the virus enters a cell, the virus particle is uncoated and therefore the RNA genome is deposited into the cell cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome features a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. this enables the RNA to connect to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses genome also encodes a protein called a replicase which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell’s machinery. The replicase is that the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, translation is stopped by a stop codon. this is often referred to as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it’s monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein ;provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[9] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and an extended polyprotein is made , where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is in a position to separate the proteins within the chain. this is often a sort of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the best number of genes during a small number of nucleotides.[10]

Transmission
Human to human transmission of coronaviruses is primarily thought to occur among close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing and coughing.[11]

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Taxonomy
Genus: Alphacoronavirus; type species: Alphacoronavirus 1[12][13]
Species: Alpaca coronavirus, Alphacoronavirus 1, Human coronavirus 229E, Human Coronavirus NL63, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus Bat coronavirus HKU8, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, Rhinolophus Bat coronavirus HKU2, Scotophilus Bat coronavirus 512
Genus Betacoronavirus; type species: Murine coronavirus
Species: Betacoronavirus 1, Human coronavirus HKU1, Murine coronavirus, Pipistrellus Bat coronavirus HKU5, Rousettus Bat coronavirus HKU9, SARS coronavirus, Tylonycteris Bat coronavirus HKU4, MERS-CoV, Human coronavirus OC43, Hedgehog coronavirus 1 (EriCoV), 2019-nCoV
Genus Deltacoronavirus; type species: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11
Species: Wigeon coronavirus HKU20, Bulbul coronavirus HKU11, Porcine coronavirus HKU15, Munia coronavirus HKU13, Thrush coronavirus HKU12
Genus Gammacoronavirus; type species: Infectious bronchitis virus
Species: Beluga whale coronavirus SW1, Infectious bronchitis virus
Evolution
The most recent common ancestor of the coronavirus has been placed at 8000 BCE.[14] they’ll be considerably older than this. Another estimate places the foremost recent common ancestor (MRCA) of all coronaviruses around 8100 BCE. The MRCA of Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus, and Deltacoronavirus are placed at about 2400 BCE, 3300 BCE, 2800 BCE, and 3000 BCE, respectively. It appears that bats and birds, the warm-blooded flying vertebrates, are ideal hosts for the coronavirus gene source (with bats for Alphacoronavirus and Betacoronavirus, and birds for Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus) to fuel coronavirus evolution and dissemination.[15]

Bovine coronavirus and canine respiratory coronavirus diverged from a standard ancestor in 1951.[16] Bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43 diverged in 1899. Bovine coronavirus diverged from the equine coronavirus species at the top of the 18th century. Another estimate suggests that human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus in 1890.[17]

The MRCA of human coronavirus OC43 has been dated to the 1950s.[18]

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, although associated with several bat species, appears to possess diverged from these several centuries ago.[19] The human coronavirus NL63 and a bat coronavirus shared an MRCA 563–822 years ago.[20]

The most closely related bat coronavirus and therefore the SARS coronavirus diverged in 1986.[21] A path of evolution of the SARS virus and keen relationship with bats are proposed.[22][23] The authors suggest that the coronaviruses are coevolved with bats for an extended time and therefore the ancestors of SARS virus first infected the species of the genus Hipposideridae, subsequently spread to species of the Rhinolophidae then to civets, and eventually to humans.[citation needed]

Alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E diverged before 1960.[24]

aviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a big proportion of all common colds in human adults and youngsters . Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily within the winter and early spring seasons.[25] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral infection or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and that they also can cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[26] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), features a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower tract infections.[26]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously referred to as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[27][28] also referred to as Wuhan coronavirus.[29] (‘Novel’ during this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and may be a placeholder name.)[28]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate within the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and youngsters world-wide.[30]

Characteristics of patients who are infected with
2019-nCoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV[31]
2019-nCoV* MERS-CoV SARS-CoV
Demographic
Detection date December 2019 June 2012 November 2002
Detection place Wuhan, China Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Guangdong, China
Age average 49 56 39.9
Age range 21–76 14–94 1–91
Male:female ratio 2.7:1 3.3:1 1:1.25
Confirmed cases 835† 2494 8096
Case fatality rate 25† (2.9%) 858 (37%) 744 (10%)
Health-care workers 16‡ 9.8% 23.1%
Symptoms
Fever 40 (98%) 98% 99–100%
Dry cough 31 (76%) 47% 29–75%
Dyspnoea 22 (55%) 72% 40–42%
Diarrhoea 1 (3%) 26% 20–25%
Sore throat 0 21% 13–25%
Ventilatory support 9.8% 80% 14–20%
*: symptoms supported the primary 41 patients. †: Data as of 23 January 2020.
‡: Data as of 21 January 2020; other data up to 21 January 2020. Published on 24 January 2020
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere within the world, the planet Health Organization (WHO) issued a handout stating that a completely unique coronavirus identified by variety of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[8]

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Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a replacement sort of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[32][33] the planet Health Organization issued a worldwide alert soon after.[34] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus didn’t seem to pass easily from person to person.[35] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[36] additionally , cases of human-to-human transmission were reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people that appeared to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia . Despite this, it appears that the virus had trouble spreading from human to human, as most people who are infected don’t transmit the virus.[37] By 30 October 2013, there have been 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia .[38]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a replacement name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). the ultimate name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the sole two us cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of those individuals were hospitalized temporarily then discharged.[39]

In May 2015, an epidemic of MERS-CoV occurred within the Republic of Korea, when a person who had traveled to the center East, visited 4 hospitals within the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one among the most important outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside the center East.[40] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a deathrate of roughly 34.5%.[41]

As of seven February 2020 (4:15 UTC), there are 638 confirmed deaths and quite 31,480 confirmed cases within the coronavirus pneumonia outbreak.[45][46] The Wuhan strain has been identified as a replacement strain of Betacoronavirus from group 2B with an ~70% genetic similarity to the SARS-CoV.[47] The virus was suspected to possess originated in snakes,[48] but many leading researchers afflict this conclusion.[49] The virus features a 96% similarity to a bat coronavirus, so an origin in bats is widely suspected.[50][51]

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Diseases caused
Coronaviruses primarily infect the upper respiratory and alimentary canal of mammals and birds. They also cause a variety of diseases in livestock and domesticated pets, a number of which may be serious and are a threat to the farming industry. In chickens, the infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, targets not only the tract but also the urogenital tract. The virus can spread to different organs throughout the chicken.[53] Economically significant coronaviruses of livestock include porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus, TGE) and bovine coronavirus, which both end in diarrhea in young animals. Feline coronavirus: two forms, feline enteric coronavirus may be a pathogen of minor clinical significance, but spontaneous mutation of this virus may result in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a disease related to high mortality. Similarly, there are two sorts of coronavirus that infect ferrets: ferret enteric coronavirus causes a gastrointestinal syndrome referred to as epizootic catarrhal enteritis (ECE), and a more lethal systemic version of the virus (like FIP in cats) referred to as ferret systemic coronavirus (FSC).[54] There are two sorts of canine coronavirus (CCoV), one that causes mild gastrointestinal disease and one that has been found to cause respiratory illness . Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) may be a coronavirus that causes a plague murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies of laboratory mice.[55] Sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) is very infectious coronavirus of laboratory rats, which may be transmitted between individuals by direct contact and indirectly by aerosol. Acute infections have high morbidity and tropism for the salivary, lachrymal and harderian glands.[56]

A HKU2-related bat coronavirus called swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) causes diarrhea in pigs.[57]

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Prior to the invention of SARS-CoV, MHV had been the best-studied coronavirus both in vivo and in vitro also as at the molecular level. Some strains of MHV cause a progressive demyelinating encephalitis in mice which has been used as a murine model for MS . Significant research efforts are focused on elucidating the viral pathogenesis of those animal coronaviruses, especially by virologists curious about veterinary and zoonotic diseases.[58]

In livestock
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes avian infectious bronchitis.
Porcine coronavirus (transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs, TGEV).[12][13]
Bovine coronavirus (BCV), liable for severe profuse enteritis in of young calves.
Feline coronavirus (FCoV) causes mild enteritis in cats also as severe Feline infectious peritonitis (other variants of an equivalent virus).
the two sorts of canine coronavirus (CCoV) (one causing enteritis, the opposite found in respiratory diseases).
Turkey coronavirus (TCV) causes enteritis in turkeys.
Ferret enteric coronavirus causes epizootic catarrhal enteritis in ferrets.
Ferret systemic coronavirus causes; FIP-like systemic syndrome in ferrets.[59]
Pantropic canine coronavirus.
Rabbit enteric coronavirus causes acute gastrointestinal disease and diarrhea in young European rabbits. Mortality rates are high.[60]
A new veterinary disease, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PED or PEDV), has emerged round the world.[citation needed] Its economic importance is unclear but shows high mortality in piglets.[citation needed]